peso de ocho
silver from the new world was mined into this globally accepted currency that connected major trade systems. first globally used currency.
Spanish colony that connected the new world with Asian markets allowing most of the new worlds silver to end up in china
Portugal and spain
attempts to monopolize trade routes by taxing which led to the down fall of Swahili cities and Malacca
fall of constantinople
fall to the Muslim ottomans creating Istanbul, and this with Vasco De gamma’s maritime route to the Indian ocean lessened the dependence of Europe on the Silk road trade.
the new premier trade system in this era that connects a large triangle between Africa, Europe, and the new world. first truly global system of trade. ships in this pattern never sailed empty.
> From Africa: across the atlantic to the new world with slaves
> after sailing slaves: sailed to Europe with sugar, tobacco, and rum from the new world.
> after loading up ships with alchol, metal, and guns, Europe sailed back to Africa for more slaves
What made transoceanic travel and trade possible?
European technological developments in cartography and navigation built on previous knowledge developed in the classical, Islamic, and Asian worlds, and included the production of new tools, innovations in ship designs, and an improved understanding of global wind and current patterns
invented by the Muslims to tell time for daily religious prayer and to calculate the timing of Ramadan.
Through Muslim Spain the Astrolabe reached Christian Europe where it borrowed basic principals but the new instrument was limited to and designed for navigation.
European maps from the middle ages which were not intended for navigation; qualitative map intended to make a religious statement about the world from a Christians point of view
greek cartographer, viewed the world in a quantitve way. a spark in the intrest of his writings allowed many new developments.
Location of the teachings of the new quantitive method of map making and the training required for the new instruments of navigation
ship developments in europe
the caravel: light, fast, and maneuverable ship first devised by the portugese which also adapted the lateen sail first made by arab merchants in the indian ocean. able to carry large cargo and only needed a very small crew allowing a smaller cost of shipping and higher profits
Spanish galleon: a century after the caravel, has 3 to 4 masts and a large multi deck ship. the last mast usually carried the lateen sail. primary vessels of the Spanish treasure fleet and capable of carrying large amounts of cargo. carried most of the slaves across the atlantic
Europe is the first to mount fire arms on both of these ships giving Europe the capacity to project unprecedented power.
water way used to carry slaves across the ocean usually on Spanish galleons
volta do mar
after Europeans discover that straight sea path isn’t always the quickest way, they developed the volta do mar, or turn of the sea, strategy.
7 major Chinese voyages
led by Zheng He, an estimated 317 ships and 27,000 men set out to establish the reputation of the newly established ming dynasty. these expeditions were not to conquer or win converts, but to gain tributary states. when they paid this tribute they would have accessability to purchasing pricey Chinese goods such as silk and porcilean. in a two year voyage, Zheng He established 20 new Chinese tributary states
a change of power inn china did bring these successful voyages to a end
unaffected by 100 years war Portugal is the first to explorer. Prince hennery wanted to go on a crusading and economic zeal which lead him to Africa, discovering gold and devastating Algiers and tunis in northern Africa from this new route of trade. this made Portugal rich. they also got slaves and ivory
prince henery the navigator
after refusing to move to the capital of Lisbon like his father wanted, Henry settled in the coastal town of SAGRES turning it into a center of navigational studies and cartography, he collected new info from newly arrived sailors to create the most current maps possible.
This also expanded the use of the compass. prince henery and engineers are the people who design the famous caravel
in 1487 is the first European to sail his ship around the tip of southern Africa
Vasco de gama
first to sail to india in 1498
trading post empire
Portugal development in goal to dominate indian ocean trade through use of firepower, intimidation, and brutality. although they were not completely successful they did build the trading post empire which gave them a significant share of the spice and slave trade
*also required to purchase passports
but portugese had neither man power or fleet to carry out these demands
washing up on Portugal from an attack, 25 year old Columbus starts to attend cartography school of Lisbon. Christopher was convinced that a route west would take him to asia, concerninf marco polos description of distance and ptomelys longitudinal calculations. after many rejections Ferdinand and Isabella of newly reunited spain decide to pay for columbus’ voyage. he makes 4 voyages to the new world still thinking its asia and dies never knowing that his exploration failed.
his voyage makes the world transforming incounter of the two hemispheres.
explorer from France who makes tons of money by sending beaver pelts from the new world to Europe. he used this made money to fun his on going obsession to find a western route to china.
POurtugese in Africa
> storm the Swahili city of kilwa and throw out the muslim leaders
> Alfonso Alboquerque seized Malacca in 1511
> attempt to close the red sea to trade to stop the ‘leak’ of trade into the mediteranian through Egypt
Also attempting to control trade routes, the dutch made a fortune by charging fees to transport items from one Asian area to another.
mugal india wanted Spanish silver for its payment of pepper sales, and the surge of silver funded Shah Jahans COnstruction of the Taj Muhal
Peso de ocho in Americas
accepted here until coinage act of 1857
Joint stock companies
when it was to expensive for one individual or the government to fund a company or voyage, joint stock companies were built by many people pooling their money together into organizations called joint stock companies to fund the voyage.
> most famous is the british east india company (EIC)
> one year later was the dutch east india company or (VOC) . much larger and wealthier than EIC with 10 times the capital resources.
> dutch west indies company traded in the new world and founded new Amsterdam, which is today new York city.
these voyages were more efficient and profitable than voyages funded by monarchs. unconcerned with religious conversion, their voyages were streamlined to produce as much profit as possible in order to please investors and attract more capital.
meant an investor could never loose more than what he paid in, but since they pulled there resources together investors would gain profits equally or loss collectively. since risk was limited and and potential for profit was high, joint stock companies attracted thousands of investors willing to put up money called stock in these ventures.
Consequence of opening up the New world. Exchange of diseases, goods, slaves, and ideas. Introduced a lot of new animals to America. Native americans had not domesticated animals so every thing was new to them, including weapons.Diseases killed off many in the new world. in addition to small pox and measles from Europe, they also spread cholera, malaria, influenza, and bubonic plague. also diffused new crops such as potatoes to Europe, Russia and china. Potatoes led to increased surpluses of food. tomatoes and hot chili peppers spread from their origin in south America to afro-Eurasia as well as sweet potatoes, potatoes, and corn which not only improved nutrition but contributed to the development of regional cusines. slaves brought yams, okra, and black eyed peas to the new world. corn still stayed large even after these were introduced. New world crops introduced in the old world help bring nutrients back to soil.
new world plants such as tobacco, sometimes used as currency such as in the English colony of Jamestown. more important than tobacco was sugar. Portugese introduce the plantation system of sugar cane in Brazil. Plantation slaves discover that molasses, a byproduct of sugar, could be distilled into rum making the sugar demand higher. this also increased the demand for slaves so more of these cash crops could be produced
old world introduces pigs, cows, sheep, cows, rabbits, and rats to the new world. with wide spaces and no predators these animals quickly reproduced. introduction of horses had a larger effect due to better hunting and warriors.
new world deforstation
large due to needed timber ineurope and because of plantations being built. clear cutting of forest led to erosion and flooding. slash and burn methods large where land was abundant