Intro to Sociology – Chapter 1 Review

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Intro to Sociology – Chapter 1 Review

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antipositivism
the view that social researchers should strive for subjectivity as they worked to
represent social processes, cultural norms, and societal values
conflict theory
a theory that looks at society as a competition for limited resources
dramaturgical analysis
a technique sociologists use in which they view society through the
metaphor of theatrical performance
dynamic equilibrium
a stable state in which all parts of a healthy society are working together
properly
dysfunctions
social patterns that have undesirable consequences for the operation of society
figuration
the process of simultaneously analyzing the behavior of an individual and the society
that shapes that behavior
functionalism
a theoretical approach that sees society as a structure with interrelated parts
designed to meet the biological and social needs of individuals that make up that society
function
the part a recurrent activity plays in the social life as a whole and the contribution it
makes to structural continuity
grand theories
attempts to explain large-scale relationships and answer fundamental questions
such as why societies form and why they change
latent functions
the unrecognized or unintended consequences of a social process
macro-level
a wide-scale view of the role of social structures within a society
manifest functions
sought consequences of a social process
micro-level theories
the study of specific relationships between individuals or small groups
paradigms
philosophical and theoretical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate
theories, generalizations, and the experiments performed in support of them
positivism
the scientific study of social patterns
qualitative sociology
in-depth interviews, focus groups, and/or analysis of content sources as
the source of its data
quantitative sociology
statistical methods such as s urveys with large numbers of participants
social facts
the laws, morals, values, religious beliefs, customs, fashions, rituals, and all of the
cultural rules that govern social life
social solidarity
the social ties that bind a group of people together such as kinship, shared
location, and religion
sociological imagination
the ability to understand how your own past relates to that of other
people, as well as to history in general and societal structures in particular
sociology
is the systematic study of society and social interaction
symbolic interactionism:
a theoretical perspective through which scholars examine the
relationship of individuals within their society by studying their communication (language and
symbols)
theory
a proposed explanation about social interactions or society
verstehen
a German word that means to understand in a deep way
1.1 What Is Sociology?
Sociology is the systematic study of society and social interaction. In order to carry out their studies,
sociologists identify cultural patterns and social forces and determine how they affect individuals and
groups. They also develop ways to apply their findings to the real world.
Which of the following best describes sociology as a subject?
The study of society and social interaction
C. Wright Mills once said that sociologists need to develop a sociological __________ to study how
society affects individuals.
imagination
A sociologist defines society as a group of people who reside in a defined area, share a culture, and
who:
interact
Seeing patterns means that a sociologist needs to be able to:
identify similarities in how social groups respond to social pressure
1.2 The History of Sociology
Sociology was developed as a way to study and try to understand the changes to society brought on by
the Industrial Revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries. Some of the earliest sociologists thought that
societies and individuals’ roles in society could be studied using the same scientific methodologies that
were used in the natural sciences, while others believed that is was impossible to predict human
behavior scientifically, and still others debated the value of such predictions. Those perspectives
continue to be represented within sociology today.
Which of the following was a topic of study in early sociology?
Economics
Which founder of sociology believed societies changed due to class struggle?
Karl Marx
The difference between positivism and antipositivism relates to:
whether sociological studies can predict or improve society
Which would a quantitative sociologists use to gather data?
A large survey
Weber believed humans could not be studied purely objectively because they were influenced by:
their culture
1.3 Theoretical Perspectives
Sociologists develop theories to explain social events, interactions, and patterns. A theory is a proposed
explanation of those patterns. Theories have different scales. Macro-level theories, such as structural
functionalism and conflict theory, attempt to explain how societies operate as a whole. Micro-level
theories, such as symbolic interactionism, focus on interactions between individuals.
Which of these theories is most likely to look at the social world on a micro level?
Symbolic interactionism
Who believed that the history of society was one of class struggle?
Karl Marx
Who coined the phrase symbolic interactionism?
Herbert Blumer
A symbolic interactionist may compare social interactions to:
theatrical roles
Which research technique would most likely be used by a symbolic interactionist?
Participant observation
1.4 Why Study Sociology?
Studying sociology is beneficial both for the individual and for society. By studying sociology people
learn how to think critically about social issues and problems that confront our society. The study of
sociology enriches students’ lives and prepares them for careers in an increasingly diverse world.
Society benefits because people with sociological training are better prepared
Kenneth and Mamie Clark used sociological research to show that segregation was:
harmful
Studying Sociology helps people analyze data because they learn:
interview techniques, to apply statistics, to generate theories
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with:
monumental moments in people’s lives & common everyday life events

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