World History 1 Final Exam Study Guide

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World History 1 Final Exam Study Guide

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Pericles
Great general and leader of Athens. Dominated Athenian public affairs, had a very significant reign called ‘The Age of Pericles.’ Athenian government became completely democratic.
Peloponnesian Wars
Provoked by the Athenians’ flaunting of power, Sparta began to fight. Was a war between Sparta and Athens. Spartans invaded Athens, and the Athenians hid behind protective walls. Plague broke out, and many Athenians died including Pericles.
Persian Wars
War started when the Persian ruler, Darius, raised taxes. Greeks rebelled with the help of Athens, but Darius crushed the revolts. He sent an army into Greece in 492 B.C, and regained Thrace and Macedonia. Battle of Marathon happens. 10 years peace, then Darius’ son Xerxes came into rule and established a massive army. Then came Thermopylae.
Battle of Marathon
Battle in which the Greeks, though vastly outnumbered by the Persians, defeated the Persian Army on the plain of Marathon.
Darius
Vicious Persian ruler who crushes Greek revolts and starts the Persian wars.
Xerxes
Darius’ son. Assembled a very large Persian army after 10 years and sent them to Thermopylae.
Thermopylae
A narrow pass which connects Greece and central Greece. The Persians could not get past the standing Greek army; the pass was too narrow. But a Greek traitor showed the Persians another way. Although outnumbered, the Greeks defeated the Persians, not physically, but in spirit.
Delos
The island where the Delian League’s funds were deposited on.
Democritus
Philosopher who developed the atomic theory, that the universe is made up of tiny particles which he called atoms.
Pythagoras
Mathematician who believed everything was based on numerical relationships & ratios, also believed that math and music were related.
Aristotle
Entered Plato’s academy at the age of 17, but made his own school, the Lyceum in 355, which was a periptetic (walking) school. Studied biology and established it’s main theories. Believed a city-state was the best setting and that moderation = justice. Aristotle placed emphasis on balance between liberty and authority, the value of public education, and quality of life for all Athenians. Created a government that was the best of a monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy with a strong middle class.
Plato
Student of Socrates, recorded his teachings. He had wealthy parents and an excellent education. Believed that democracy was the tyranny of the common people. In 388, he established the Academy, a school that was devoted to philosophy and science. The Republic was was the ideal state that included welfare for citizens and emphasis on special talents and abilities. His 4 virtues: truth, wisdom, courage, and moderation. Ideal government was an aristocracy based on intelligence.
Socrates
Created a different method of teaching than the ‘sophists’ in which he asked questions instead of giving answers. Motto was ‘know thyself.’ Was impeached in 399 for ‘corrupting the youth and undermining religious beliefs.’ Created the death penalty.
Hippocrates
Established a school of medicine on the island of Cos in 420 (lol blaze it yo.) Discovered the natural causes of illness which were: crisis, acute, and chronic. Established the “Hippocratic Oath” which doctors today still must accept.
Herodotus
Considered the father of history, traveled through Egypt, Greece, and Mesopotamia. Frequently discussed the Persian Wars.
Thucydides
Famous for his writing, ‘the History of the Peloponnesian War.’ Believed that by studying the past, one can understand human nature better, and tried to make his writings as accurate and unbiased as possible.
Aeschylus
Was the father of Greek tragedy, and fought in both Marathon and Salamis. He wrote a total of 80 plays, including the Orestian Trilogy. He was famous for using characters to demonstrate development, justice, and moral order. Also focused on the relationship between gods and humans.
Sophocles
Had noble parents and a great education. Was great friends with Herodotus, Pericles, and Euripides. Believed it was impossible for a man to control his own destiny, that the moral laws of the universe defended traditional value.
Euripides
Wrote around 100 plays with passionate characters and rash actions. His plays reflected on the uncertainty during the Peloponnesian Wars.
Aristophanes
Wrote comedies, considered greatest Greek writer of comedies. Disliked wars, used his comedies to make people think about wars’ causes and consequences, especially the Trojan Wars.
Philosopher
Word meaning ‘lover of wisdom.’
Philosophy
The study of the most fundamental questions of reality and human existence.
Dramas
Plays containing action or dialogue. Usually involved conflict and emotion.
Comedies
Originated at a festival honoring Dionysus, mocked ideas and people.
Tragedies
Main character struggles against fate and a combination of outside forces overcome the main character.
Hubris
Excessive pride in yourself or your accomplishments.
Phalanx
Consisted of two rows of soldiers standing shoulder to shoulder, equipped with pikes as long as 21 feet.
Infantry
A group of soldiers trained and equipped to fight on foot.
Orators
Public speakers.
Demosthenes
Great orator who led the opposition to Philip in Athens. He tried to make Athenians aware of the danger he believed Philip withheld. He spurred the Athenians to take action, but they failed to present a unified defense.
Philip II
Became king in 359. As a youth, he was a hostage to Thebes for 3 yrs, but he came to admire the Greek lifestyle and Greek military. He recruited the first paid army in Macedonian history. His soldiers became one of the strongest armies of all time. He continually gained more and more control of Greece. After undergoing the revolt of his people and becoming disliked, he was assassinated at his daughter’s wedding in 336.
Alexander the Great & his reign
Alexander was the son of Philip. He received his military training from the Macedonian army and his education from Aristotle. He was very physically strong and very brave. He crushed revolts in Greece and then set out to conquer the world after conquering Greece. He tried to conquer India, but after 4 years, his soldiers got tired and begged to go back home. He divided his troops and people among deserts, oceans and forests to explore the world, a process in which many of his people died in. His empire became discontent and he shrunk back in fear. He died of a 10 day fever at 32 years old.
Diogenes
Best known Cynic.
Pyrrho
Credited as the founder of Skepticism.
Epicurus
Founder of Epicurean philosophy, taught that the aim of life focuses on seeking pleasure and avoiding pain.
Archimedes
Considered to be the greatest scientist of the Hellenistic period.
Hipparchus
First scientist to use trig in a systematic way, calculated the times of eclipses of the Sun and the moon. Also calculated the length of a year according to the sun and moon.
Eratosthenes
Calculated the cirumfrence of the Earth with amazing accuracy.
Zeno
Established stoic philosophy in 300 B.C in Athens.
Greek Art
All forms reflected the Greeks’ views of themselves and the world. Four characteristics established Greek Art:
1. Glorified humans.
2. Symbolized the peoples’ pride in their city-states.
3. Expressed Greek ideals of harmony, balance, order, and moderation.
4. Expressed Greek belief in combining beauty and usefulness.
Myron
Greek sculptor during the Golden Age. Sculpted the Discus Thrower.
Phidias
Famous Greek sculptor who created the two famous statues of Athena that stood on the acropolis and in the Parthenon.
Praxiteles
Lived about 100 years after Phidias. Created a different type of sculpture. He created large, formal, dignified works that were appropriate for the gods.
Republic
Form of government in which voters elect officials to run the state.
Tribunes
Ten officials elected by the assembly.
Veto
To refuse to approve.
Checks and Balances
The division of power between the Senate that prevented any one part of the government from becoming too powerful.
Consuls
Two leaders elected at the end of the monarchy that served one-year terms. They served as chief executives that ran the government and acted as military commanders.
Praetors
Officials elected by the Romans to help the Consuls.
Patrician
A powerful aristocratic class organized in clans.
Plebeian
All other citizens that weren’t Patricians.
Legion
The most important military unit of the Roman army.
Paterfamilias
The name for a father in Roman society.
Romulus
The son of a priestess and Mars, who was also the god of war, who founded Rome. His mother was killed, so him and his twin brother, Remus, were sent down the Tiber River in a basket. They washed ashore and were raised by a wolf and nursed by a sheperd. Romulus killed his brother Remus and by doing so was crowned king and founder of Rome.
Pax Romana
“Roman Peace.”
Aqueducts
Bridge-like structures that carried water from the mountains.
Anarchy
The absence of any government.
First Triumvirate
Caesar, Pompey, Crassus.
*CCP
Fell because Crassus was killed in campaign in Parthea, and Caesar’s daughter, the wife of Pompey, Julia dies, so he doesn’t feel loyal to Pompey anymore.
Second Triumvirate
Anthony, Lepidus, and Octavian. Anthony and Octavian end up kicking Lepidus out.
Octavian
Controls provinces of Sicily and Africa. Divorces his wife, Octavia, eventually finds Anthony’s will and his intent to leave Cleopatra everything, and he declares war and defeats Anthony and Cleopatra.
Cleopatra
Egyptian wife of Anthony.
Republic
Form of government in which voters elect officials to run the state.
Punic Wars
The wars were started because the Romans feared that the Carthaginian navy would dominate the Med. Sea and prevent the expansion of Roman influence overseas.
First punic war: Rome had no Navy, but soon built a vessel and modeled it similar to the Carthaginians. The Romans used boarding bridges which brought their land tactics to sea. Rome prevailed and Carthage asked for Peace.
Second Punic War: Hannibal, from Spain brought war elephants into battle. He won many victories over the Romans, and tried to win over Roman allies, despite their strong loyalty.
Third Punic War: Romans had a hatred for Carthage, so the Senate decided to crush Carthage in 149. They declared war, and the city fell in two short years of war.
Hannibal
Well-known for his cruelty as an army leader. Involved in the second punic war, made a famous trek throughout the mountains with his elephants which were a gift to him, and won many victories over the Romans.
Indemnity
Money for damages caused.
Sulla
Elected to censorship in 88 BC, but after his term expired, his band of enemies, led by Marius, tried to prevent him from taking higher military command. Sulla then marched his legions into Rome and started a civil war in which Sulla won. He then executed all Roman citizens who opposed him and ruled as dictator for awhile. He carried out a reform program and expanded the Senate to 300 members. He died peacefully and willingly.
Julius Caesar
Caesar returned to Rome after the reign of Sulla and had made many enemies in the Senate. He joined forces with Pompey and Crassus. (CCP, 1st Triumvirate) He obtained a loyal army in Gaul in order to stay in power. He became sole consul after the death of Crassus. He then lead his army towards Rome. His army then crossed the Rubicon. He was eventually declared dictator for life but some people were not too fond of his new status, and on March 15 (ides of March) Brutus and his other close friend stabbed him.
Pompey
Member of the first Triumvirate, was jealous of Caesar.
Good Emperors
Nero, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius, Nerva.
Martyrs
Someone who dies for a certain belief to stand as an example.
Carthage
Rome’s opposer in the Punic Wars.
Christianity
Monotheistic religion that was brought into the Roman Empire, believed in Jesus Christ.
Rabbi
Jewish priest.
Rise and fall of the Roman Empire
Rome became very powerful because every road in the world at that time led to Rome. Trade was very easy and Rome was raking in money. But soon, something called inflation came in and money was no longer worth it’s face value. Citizens stopped accepting money, and reverted to bartering. So instead of advancing, the Roman Empire went backwards. The Roman Empire eventually grew too large to fast and the type of government (designed for a city-state) proved faulty.
Patriarchs
Bishops of Empire cities.
Icons
Statues, holy pictures of saints, people, and scenes from the church.
Heresy
Opinions that conflict with church law.
Excommunication
Banning of a person from church membership and ceremonies.
Justinian
Emperor who ruled from 527 to 565. Led the successful, political, economic, intellectual, and artistic revival.
Theodora
Justinian’s loyal wife, the most famous Byzantium empress. Was in the circus. Encouraged Justinian to make many new laws and stay within the Empire when he wanted to flee.
Dowry
Goods brought into the marriage by the groom.
Constantinople
Capital of the Byzantine Empire.
Byzantine Empire: strengths and weaknesses
Strengths: the people adapted well to change, and the government was very strong with a high-skilled emperor at the center of it. Effective military that developed Greek fire. Large trading empire, very wealthy. They were the first to trade with China, Scandanavia, & India. But the empire was especially vulnerable at some points, and when the Ottoman turks attacked them in 1453, they had no defense.
Justinian Code
Became the basis of many European legal systems during the Middle Ages. It recognized Roman law to make sure there were no inconsistencies and the novels contained updates in the laws.
Muhammad
He was born in Mecca in 570, was orphaned at the age of 6 and his grandpa and uncle took care of him. He had no formal education, but lived as a caravan trader which exposed him to scholars of monotheistic religions. Has a great religious experience at the age of 40 and becomes a great prophet.
Moors
Islams of Spain.
Bedouins
Nomadic Arabic herders.
Mosques
Islam places of worship.
Caliph
Head of Islamic faith, holy one.
Koran
Holy book of Islam.
Mecca
Holy city where Muhammad was born.
Sunni
Muslims who followed the koran and the teachings of Sunna. They believed any enlightened person could become Caliph.
Shi’ah
Muslims who followed the Koran and the Koran only, believed only descendants of Muhammad could be Caliph.
5 Pillars of Islam Faith
1. “There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet.” Recite the Islam creed.
2. Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca.
3. Give offering to others.
4. Fast and refrain from sexual relations during the month of Ramadan.
5. Make a pilgrimage to Mecca, or contribute to someone elses’.
Feudalism
Political structure that evolved in Europe.
Vassal
Person who recieved land from their lord in turn for services.
Fief
Land recieved by vassals in turn for services.
Manor
Large estate, included the manor house.
Serfs
Peasants who were bound to the lands.
Chivalry
Code of conduct for knights.
Orginization of the church
1. Pope who lived in Vatican city.
2. Cardinals who elected Popes beginning in 1059.
3. Archbishops who excersized authority over the other bishops in his provience.
4. Bishop who managed a diocese consisting of many parishes.
5. Parish priest who conducted services in the village church and supervised moral and religious instruction.
7 Sacraments
1. Baptism
2. Holy Eucrues (communion)
3. Confirmation
4. Penance (forgiveness)
5. Marriage
6. Annointing of the sick
7. Holy orders.

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